[211] At the same time, a Roman column under the legate Lusius Quietus – an outstanding cavalry general[212] who had signaled himself during the Dacian Wars by commanding a unit from his native Mauretania[213] – crossed the Araxes river from Armenia into Media Atropatene and the land of the Mardians (present-day Ghilan). Therefore, in October 97, Nerva adopted as his successor Trajan, whom he had made governor of Upper Germany and who seemed acceptable both to the army commanders and to the Senate. As emperor, Trajan expanded the Roman Empire to become larger than ever before. [104] Also, according to the Digest, it was decreed by Trajan that when a city magistrate promised to achieve a particular public building, it was incumbent on his heirs to complete the building. Frank Vermeulen, Kathy Sas, Wouter Dhaeze, eds. [36] His belated ceremonial entry into Rome in 99 was notably understated, something on which Pliny the Younger elaborated. He was deified by the Senate and his ashes were laid to rest under the Trajan's Column. The care bestowed by Trajan on the managing of such public spectacles led the orator Fronto to state approvingly that Trajan had paid equal attention to entertainments as well as to serious issues. [155] As Fronto added, amusements were a means to assure the general acquiescence of the populace, while the more "serious" issue of the corn dole aimed ultimately only at individuals. For the emperor's father, see. Marcus Ulpius Traianus was born in the Roman province of Baetica (Andalusia). Trajan was a Roman emperor (98–117 CE) who sought to extend the boundaries of the empire to the east, undertook a vast building program, and enlarged social welfare. 1–35. [174], In short, the scheme was so limited in scope that it could not have fulfilled a coherent economic or demographic purpose – it was directed, not towards the poor, but to the community (in this case, the Italian cities) as a whole. [286], Some theologians such as Thomas Aquinas discussed Trajan as an example of a virtuous pagan. Omissions? [146], Trajan resettled Dacia with Romans and annexed it as a province of the Roman Empire. Although his ancestors, whether or not original settlers, were undoubtedly Roman, or at least Italian, they may well have intermarried with natives. He is also known for his philanthropic rule, overseeing extensive public building programs and implementing social welfare policies, which earned him his enduring reputation as the second of the Five Good Emperors who presided over an era of peace within the Empire and prosperity in the Mediterranean world. Some ancient sources also tell about his having built a bath named after him on the Aventine Hill in Rome, or having this bath built by Trajan and then named after him, in either case a signal of honour as the only exception to the established rule that a public building in the capital could be dedicated only to a member of the imperial family. [86] The usual form that such rivalries took was that of grandiose building plans, giving the cities the opportunity to vie with each other over "extravagant, needless ... structures that would make a show". IN Ryan K. Balot, ed.. Bernard W. Henderson, "Five Roman Emperors" (1927). [116] Trajan returned to Rome in triumph and was granted the title Dacicus. After having appointed Hadrian his successor, Trajan died while returning to Italy from the east. Dante, The Divine Comedy, Purgatorio X, ll. Trajan undertook or encouraged extensive public works: roads, bridges, aqueducts, the reclamation of wastelands, and the construction of harbours and buildings. He accomplished this in the summer of 97 by naming Trajan as his adoptive son and successor, allegedly solely on Trajan's outstanding military merits. [157] This devaluation, coupled with the massive amount of gold and silver carried off after Trajan's Dacian Wars, allowed the emperor to mint a larger quantity of denarii than his predecessors. [226], As far as the sources allow a description of this campaign, it seems that one Roman division crossed the Tigris into Adiabene, sweeping south and capturing Adenystrae; a second followed the river south, capturing Babylon; Trajan himself sailed down the Euphrates from Dura-Europos – where a triumphal arch was erected in his honour – through Ozogardana, where he erected a "tribunal" still to be seen at the time of Julian the Apostate's campaigns in the same area. Available at, Dante 1998, p. 593. It may also originate in Roman displeasure at an empress meddling in political affairs. Trajan's administrative measures were chiefly designed to preserve the prosperity of Italy. Pliny the Younger, for example, celebrates Trajan in his panegyric as a wise and just emperor and a moral man. As the marriage was childless, he took into his household his cousin Hadrian, who became a favourite of Plotina. As Pliny wrote to Trajan, this had as its most visible consequence a trail of unfinished or ill-kept public utilities. Trajan served in the East, in Germany, and in Spain. There was also discontent among the frontier commanders. Concern about independent local political activity is seen in Trajan's decision to forbid Nicomedia from having a corps of firemen ("If people assemble for a common purpose ... they soon turn it into a political society", Trajan wrote to Pliny) as well as in his and Pliny's fears about excessive civic generosities by local notables such as distribution of money or gifts. A splendid public bathing complex was erected on the Esquiline Hill, and a magnificent new forum was designed by the architect Apollodorus of Damascus. He is also remembered for Trajan’s Column, an innovative work of art that commemorated his Dacian Wars. Corrections? For other uses, see, "Marcus Ulpius Trajanus" redirects here. [184] Also, Charax's rulers domains at the time possibly included the Bahrain islands (where a Palmyrene citizen held office, shortly after Trajan's death, as satrap[185] – but then, the appointment was made by a Parthian king of Charax[186]) something which offered the possibility of extending Roman hegemony into the Persian Gulf itself. [198] As far as territorial conquest involved tax-collecting,[199] especially of the 25% tax levied on all goods entering the Roman Empire, the tetarte, one can say that Trajan's Parthian War had an "economic" motive. Trajan was a Roman emperor who ruled from A.D. 98 until his death in A.D. 117. Also, Trajan withdrew from circulation silver denarii minted before the previous devaluation achieved by Nero, something that allows for thinking that Trajan's devaluation had to do with political ends, such as allowing for increased civil and military spending. [72] But then Trajan's new Eastern senators were mostly very powerful and very wealthy men with more than local influence[73] and much interconnected by marriage, so that many of them were not altogether "new" to the Senate. [188], In his Dacian conquests, Trajan had already resorted to Syrian auxiliary units, whose veterans, along with Syrian traders, had an important role in the subsequent colonization of Dacia. "Trajano fundador. [152], Trajan built several new buildings, monuments and roads in Italia and his native Hispania. [123] Including auxiliaries, the number of Roman troops engaged on both campaigns was between 150,000 and 175,000, while Decebalus could dispose of up to 200,000. His magnificent complex in Rome raised to commemorate his victories in Dacia (and largely financed from that campaign's loot) – consisting of a forum, Trajan's Column, and Trajan's Market, still stands in Rome today. Portrait Bust of the Emperor Hadrian, 125-30 AD, via the British Museum, London (forefront); and the oculus of the Pantheon in Rome (background). By feigning reluctance to hold power, Trajan was able to start building a consensus around him in the Senate. From there, after his father's replacement, he seems to have been transferred to an unspecified Rhine province, and Pliny implies that he engaged in active combat duty during both commissions. Trajan was a Roman emperor (98–117 CE) who sought to extend the boundaries of the empire to the east, undertook a vast building program, and enlarged social welfare. [141] The fact that these former Danubian outposts had ceased to be frontier bases and were now in the deep rear acted as an inducement to their urbanization and development. 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