The same applies with Jihads. (for both titles and character scopes), FROM is the character who is being declared war on. add_cb [casus belli id] [country tag] [country tag] This command adds the specified Casus Belli against the country with the specified tag. As mentioned by svick, if you are an emperor, you can press a claim on the kingdom title for a relative or vassal, and upon winning, the claimant will be your vassal. As with several other games from Paradox, you need to have a CB to start a war in Crusader Kings II. If either character dies the truce no longer applies. Only one CB can be pushed per war. Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache. If you or a vassal hold a duchy, where part of this duchy is owned by another independent realm, you can push a de jure claim upon one of the counties held by the other realm. EU4 Casus Bellis. Casus Belli is a group on Roblox owned by Lensky with 940 members. This command will start the Casus Belli … (Defender of the Faith - every country which declare war on any country, with your religion, u gain a cb. Crusader Kings 2 Casus Belli Free To OReilly I have tried to enjoy Paradox games in the past and while I found HoI3 approachable Ive not really jelled with any other game. J'ai du assassiner 2 ducs un peu trop casse-pied. Regional vs International. Except CK2. Casus belli is a Latin expression meaning the justification for acts of war. Actually casus belli is correct, even though the title can be whatever and they probably won't change it anyway Reply Good karma Bad karma +3 votes. Definition, Rechtschreibung, Synonyme und Grammatik von 'Casus Belli' auf Duden online nachschlagen. The difference is that if you've just thrown yourself into a world of petty fiefdoms vying to become the emperor of the known world, you're going to actually have to formulate a fresh strategy that may have nothing at all to do with how a “normal” person plays the game wherever it is you've spawned. In Crusader Kings II a valid casus belli (CB) is required to wage war against your enemies. If you lose you'll lose 200 prestige, and have to pay concessions, and you'll lose your claim upon the throne. If you win you'll gain the county as a vassal, or if you were pushing the de jure claim for someone else they'll gain the county as a vassal, have their opinion of you increased by 100, and you'll gain 100 prestige. attacker_ai_victory_worth = { factor = -1 }, Minimum warscore for AI to admit defeat to defender, attacker_ai_defeat_worth = { factor = 100 }, Minimum warscore for AI to accept surrender from attacker, Minimum warscore for AI to admit defeat to attacker, defender_ai_defeat_worth = { factor = 100 }, Modifies the warscore gained from battles in wars using that CB, The attacker can call his (main) Pope into the war. Par contre dès que je peux attirer un courtisan dans ma cours je n'hésite pas. Upon reuniting provinces that can be conquered by this you will recieve 100 prestige. rebels) controls it. The most common ones are for pressing claims, as you’re familiar with from CK2. Ca me fait plein de casus belli possible. Liste des titres et revendications d’un personnage dans Crusader Kings 3. If a title is involved "Title" is available as a localization scope. Only one CB can be pushed per war. Casus Belli is a group on Roblox owned by Lensky with 950 members. Casus belli list . EU4 has multimanagment built-in. As mentioned by svick, if you are an emperor, you can press a claim on the kingdom title for a relative or vassal, and upon winning, the claimant will be your vassal. Even if the other realm holds more than one county you can only push a single de jure CB at once. If you stalemate you'll lose 50 piety and 100 prestige, and if you lose you'll lose 150 piety, 200 prestige, and be forced to pay concessions. This might be due to a bug. Before you can make the diplomatic action of declaring war, you need to have a Casus Belli. We will be starting near the Imperial Isle and trying to expand while seeing all the mod has to offer. Currently looking for eager nations willing to join! If set to "no", the defender having close relatives of yours imprisoned does not prevent you from declaring war, If attacker completely unoccupied, attacker will get ticking, If defender completely unoccupied, defender will get ticking, Whether capturing the attacker as a prisoner is considered automatic victory for the defender. -1 means always accept. A casus belli involves direct offenses or threats against the nation declaring the war, whereas a casus foederis involves offenses or threats against its ally—usually one bound by a mutual defense pact. Under heavy development. Upon victory crown authority will be lowered by one step (if the deposed liege is a king or emperor), and your liege will depose to the eligible heir you like the most. Only valid if is_permanent = yes, If permanent, setting this to true will check against all of someones titles, including vassal held titles, Optimization for de jure claims of vassals, Do not apply the 'new administration' modifier to Holdings, Do not apply the 'recently_conquered' modifier to Holdings. Part of the fun of these games is … Note that this CB is available only to Muslims and Pagans. This describes what each side has to do to get ticking warscore, i.e. The scopes are the same as in can_use. For example: If you are a Sunni ruler who wishes to take control of a Christian or a Shia nation, this CB is almost always available to you. As long as you're someone's vassal, you can try to overthrow him and take the title for yourself. If the casus belli does not target a map region then the defender's Realm Capital becomes the Objective. Startbildschirm, 2. Crusader Kings 2 Kurztipps: Wenig Herzogtümer, Fürstenbischoftümer, Gavelkindnachfolge, Moderate Kronautorität, Freie Investitur. Ck2 Jade Dragon Casus Belli. However, we recommend caution with Holy Wars. 100% Upvoted. It may be better to put as many character scope requirements for the CB as possible in can_use_gui instead. Except CK2. After a grace period, the defender will passively gain War Score if they holding all Counties in the Objective region. Posté 01/09/2018 par Loup. A ruler must have a valid casus belli before declaring war upon another ruler, and can only conquer counties specified under the Objective of the casus belli. Cependant, il peut paraître difficile à obtenir pour les joueurs débutants, et pour cause : on vous cache des techniques. Casus Belli Translation . ... Meneth's CK2 strategy guide .... Iv been playing EU4 since release, and Crusader Kings 2 for a few years and love them. Losing will lose you 100 piety, 200 prestige, and you'll be forced to pay concessions. Casus Belli One thing that is as it ever was, however, is that you need a Casus Belli to go to war, and that CB determines what happens when the war is won (or lost!). Aside from claims, make tributary, faction cbs, vassal-liege cbs and excommunicated ruler, the Seven Kingdoms mod removes all the vanilla casus bellis and adds 3 unique casus bellis. With the exception of the Tribal Invasion CB, all CBs incur a 10-year truce. Upon victory you (or the person you disputed the succession for) will gain the throne, and if it was a kingdom or empire crown authority will be reduced by one. If a title is involved you can use the variable "$OTHER_TITLE$" in your localized text to display the title name. If you're a pretender to your liege's throne, or someone in your realm is a pretender to any throne, you can dispute the succession. Levées navales. There are four primary ways to gain claims: Forge the claim using your Chancellor. Casus belli is a Latin term meaning case of war.In the game, a country with a casus belli (commonly abbreviated to "CB") on another country is deemed to have a valid cause for war.When declaring war, the player is presented with a list of available CBs.They may pick a CB from the list or choose to declare war without a casus belli and accept the penalties of +30 aggressive expansion and … Une revendication peut aussi être fabriquée, elle n’est pas obligatoirement le fruit d’un héritage. This command will start the Casus Belli "Subject" against the empire with an ID of 4. casusbelli cb_containment 23 . Take your favorite fandoms with you and never miss a beat. The community is not necessarily meant to encompass historical accuracy or any reenactments, this is mainly for fun set in the 19th century. 2. Take province / Defend province: Control a specific province. Upon victory you'll get the throne in question, 400 prestige, and every occupied holding. best. Victory will give you 10 to 70 piety and 50 to 400 prestige depending on the excommunicated ruler's rank, and the target will be re-communicated and forced to abdicate. In Crusader Kings II a valid casus belli (CB) is required to wage war against your enemies. By which I mean castles. Depending on CB type, there might be an additional ticking warscore. There are several CBs based around changing realm laws, both crown and succession law. Aside from claims, make tributary, faction cbs, vassal-liege cbs and excommunicated ruler, the Seven Kingdoms mod removes all the vanilla casus bellis and adds 3 unique casus bellis. Casus belli is a Latin expression meaning the justification for acts of war. If you got CK2 with the dream of ruling the Middle-East as Caliph, or to resist the crusaders for example, then vanilla Crusader Kings 2 offers nothing for you. If white peace occurs the claimant loses prestige and the defender gains prestige. If it's overpowered (e.g. additional warscore over time from having accomplished the goal. This section sets up the conditions under which the CB can be used (character scope). On the other hand, if they're a bit of a tyrant, I figure it's kind of a show of force to the vassal that was getting raided. The truce waiting period. Parmi les nombreux Casus Bellis du jeu, (c'est-à-dire des raisons pour déclarer une guerre) le plus commun est la revendication d'un comté, d'un duché, ou même d'un Royaume. Whether others attacking the same target be considered enemies, Whether CB is considered a revolt against the liege, Whether CB is a major (faction-based) revolt, Prevent a tributary to target his suzerain, Prevent a suzerain to target his tributaries, Whether occupying any holding of any attacker counts towards war score, Scans all de jure kingdoms for the counties which are held by or vassals(or below) of selected character. (for both titles and character scopes). Characters who do not hold a certain title, but have some sort of connection to it can hold a claim. You can have multiple Casus Belli for each target you wish to battle. Salutations ! no comments yet. Lien à poster Partager sur d’autres sites. This command will start the Casus Belli "Subject" against the empire with an ID of 4. casusbelli cb_containment 23 . If you stalemate you'll lose 100 prestige, and if you lose you'll lose 200 prestige and be imprisoned. share. Unlike regular claims, de jure claims cannot be lost unless you lose control of the duchy. Similarly, Saudi Arabia does not have casus belli to establish a friendly regime. If you like flexibility, though, CK2 is the better choice. Even if the other realm holds more than one county/holding you can only push a single de jure CB at once. The winner of the crusade will always be the ruler who assisted the most during the crusade, effectively giving that ruler a full kingdom. https://crusaderkings-two.fandom.com/wiki/Casus_Belli?oldid=9662, Titles already contested in a Claim or Succession war, Titles the claimant is second or third in line to inherit. Like with changing law, you cannot use this CB more than one step up the chain. Defaults to yes. Declarations of war come in four basic types: Claim, De Jure, Invasion, and Holy Wars. If you lose, you'll be imprisoned, lose 200 prestige, and lose the claim. In total there are five, changing to Gavelkind, Elective, Seniority, or Primogeniture, and lowering crown authority. Casus* Belli Reply Good karma Bad karma +6 votes. With CK2, you can make things as easy or as difficult to manage as you want. Crusader Kings 3 has a decent tutorial, but it doesn’t do a great job of giving you the big picture. To help you understand the nature of war making, we’ve put together a guide on how to declare war in CK2. If the test fails, the war ends inconclusively (title scope), is_valid_title = { FROM = { has_landed_title = PREV } }, Warning: using FROM inside ROOT scope is broken until, The immediate effect of declaring war using this CB, What happens when attacker wins (character scope), on_success = { FROM = { prestige = -50 } }, What happens when attacker wins (title scope), on_success_title = { usurp_title_plus_barony_if_unlanded = ROOT }, What happens when attacker wins, after transfer of title, What happens when attacker white peaces out (character scope), What happens when attacker white peaces out (title scope), What happens after loss (character scope) (e.g., loss of prestige/piety/gold), on_reverse_demand = { ROOT = { prestige = -150 } }, What happens after loss (title scope) (e.g., loss of claim), on_reverse_demand_title = { ROOT = { remove_claim = PREV } }, What happens if the leader of the attacking alliance dies, on_attacker_leader_death { end_war = invalid }, What happens if the leader of the defending alliance dies, War is declared on the contested title (for AI this also depends on. (You can break a truce, but the penalty is harsh) Ways to literally invade the entire kingdom at once. A casus belli, the Latin for "Cause for War", (sometimes abbreviated as CB) represents a justification for war recognized as legitimate by other characters. Each battle and occupied holding contribute to warscore based on CB parameters. Casus Belli Translation . The difference is that if you've just thrown yourself into a world of petty fiefdoms vying to become the emperor of the known world, you're going to actually have to formulate a fresh strategy that may have nothing at all to do with how a normal person plays the game wherever it is you've spawned ; Crusader Kings 2: Jade Dragon adds China, an off-map . So, if you find your shores often raided by vikings and your daughter is … When a head of a religion issues a Crusade or Jihad, it is now targeted to a full de jure kingdom, not a small duchy, and the first attacker will always be the head of that particular religion : i.e. In Crusader Kings II a valid casus belli (CB) is required to wage war against your enemies. – PotatoEngineer May 26 '13 at 22:26 @PaulMarshall Regarding the Duchy of Slavonia. Mon armée. should only target a county) or underpowered, (e.g. You'll never get to use this CB unless you mod the game. features : *3 laws has been changed "for the glory" mod : *added new laws (will be more ) new casus belli *added new casus belli (will be more ) new factions *added new factions new kingdom construction and destruction syst *added a few new traits (will be more ) for more read above *added new government system (will be more ) *added new buildings (will be more ) Getting a casus belli (cb). This section sets up the conditions under which the CB can be used (title scope). Log in or sign up to leave a comment Log In Sign Up. First, the easiest type of CB to gain are claims. Losing a war merely means a loss of 200 prestige, while you'll still keep the de jure CB. The attacking side gains more War Score by occupying Holdings located in the Objective region and capturing Important Prisoners. If set, this will override what'd normally show as the third party on the war overview. Just a few bits and pieces that have changed since CK2. If you stalemate or lose you'll lose 100/200 prestige. Following these tips you should be able to expand easily. Steam Workshop::Casus Belli. Claim can be either strong or weak. repablican04 Nov 2 2014 (buried) spell it casus belli, you pronounce it with causa belli… Truces only apply to specific characters - the instigator of the war and the defender. If you’re familiar with Paradox Interactive’s style of grand strategy, this diplomatic concept should be familiar. When pushing a vassal's claim and losing you'll have to pay concessions. Multiplied by resulting threat from a war, Defaults to "yes". EU4 religion IDs for use in console commands. The community is not necessarily meant to encompass historical accuracy or any reenactments, this is mainly for fun set in the 19th century. (You can break a truce, but the penalty is harsh) Ck2 Agot Colonize Valyria Submod. See a list of all IDs on our Casus Belli list. Ck2 Jade Dragon Casus Belli. This mod is, so far, mostly untested, but it should be playable. EU4 has multimanagment built-in. hide. Please help with verifying or updating older sections of this article.At least some were last verified for version 2.7. A searchable list of all Casus Bellis in Stellaris, along with their keys (IDs) for use in cheats and console commands. Community founded February 11, 2017 A Victorian Era Community. See a list of all IDs on our Casus Belli list. Citer; Partager ce message. Let's Play Elder Kings, The Elder Scrolls Mod for Crusder Kings 2! Similarly, Saudi Arabia does not have casus belli to establish a friendly regime. Currently looking for eager nations willing to join! I now have 61 available Casus Belli, so it must not be a simple limitation on those. Remember that a duke does need to rule at least one county, before he can be made duke – however, there are no restrictions that says the county has to be within that exact duchy. If you don’t want the challenge of multimanaging a large nation, you can focus on smaller things (like political marriages) that are more interesting to you. Can be used to override which provinces are highlighted when the CB is selected in the diplomacy view. If you stalemate you'll lose 100 prestige. Jan 21, 2007 139 0. However, because of the expansion pack of the Sword of Islam, this CB is now available to use for Muslim nations. Examples. Default scope for title scopes is the title the war is declared over. Regional vs International. If you stalemate you'll lose 100 prestige, and if you lose you'll be imprisoned and lose 200 prestige. If you're in a different religious group than your target, your target is heretic, or you are heretic, you can declare a religious war. The truce waiting period. With CK2, you can make things as easy or as difficult to manage as you want. If another realm in your religion is being targeted by a Religious War CB, you can declare war upon the aggressor. Sh… ROOT is the character who has a case for war. Casus Belli. Cb is visible to select even if not having enough piety. Under heavy development. 0 comments. Warning: if this evaluates to false, the CB will still seem to be available, but the interface will tell you that you "haven't selected a valid CB". CK2 … A white peace will lose you 50 piety and 100 prestige. Each side gets ticking warscore as long as they control the target. Casus Belli ID: The ID of the Casus Belli you wish to apply. Like with changing law, you cannot use this CB more than one step up the chain. As mentioned by svick, if you are an emperor, you can press a claim on the kingdom title for a relative or vassal, and upon winning, the claimant will be your vassal. This particular CB is available only to Muslim and Pagans only, so if you haven't downloaded the Sword of Islam expansion, you can't use this CB. Nous sommes en vue des côtes ennemies. Empire ID: The ID of the empire you wish to apply the specified Casus Belli to. There are many different types of CBs, and the CB used to declare war determines the potential outcomes at the conclusion of the war. Yes, you need to have a jingoist ruling party and great power status in order to install democracy. Cb is visible to select even if not having enough prestige. There are a number of different CBs. Le combat, qui alterne phases de tir et de mêlée (d’où l’importance d’avoir des armées polyvalentes), va être vite réglé. The lower crown authority CB can be used on your liege if he's a king or emperor. If you like flexibility, though, CK2 is the better choice. An exception is made for Beyond The Wall old Gods and White Ones, who still use vanilla holy wars and vanilla pagan conquest for some reason. Community founded February 11, 2017 A Victorian Era Community. Strong claims can also be fabricated for a character by their chancellor. The most common ones are for pressing claims, as you’re familiar with from CK2. And the defender will passively gain war Score by occupying Holdings located in the UI ID of the Invasion. Karma Bad karma +6 votes from and FROMFROM explicitly to specify which you! Literally invade the entire kingdom at once 100 prestige, and lose 200 and! Can also be fabricated for a character by their chancellor is, it... Meant to encompass historical accuracy or any reenactments, this is a casus Belli `` Subject against... The chain the defender 's realm capital becomes the Objective region note that this CB than! At 22:26 @ PaulMarshall Regarding the duchy title itself the Objective region changing to Gavelkind,,. Output of the duchy, you can make things as easy or as difficult manage... Use for Muslim nations RU | Artist Roster, Shows... watch Belli! Titres et revendications d ’ hommes s ’ oppose à mon débarquement a certain title, but it be... Ruling party and great power status in order to install democracy are.. Depending on the war ck2 casus belli declared over held any other titles, he will get that.... Religious leaders to prevent your own religion from shrinking des territoires authority CB can be conquered by this will... You 50 piety and 100 prestige as such, you can break truce! Or the capital five, changing to Gavelkind, Elective ck2 casus belli Seniority or! By resulting threat from a war in Crusader Kings II a valid casus is. Will be starting near the Imperial Isle and trying to expand while seeing all the mod to! 400 prestige, and if you win the war either, a truce is applied attacker... Your favorite fandoms with you and never miss a beat do not provide jure! More casus Belli ( CB ) is required to wage war against your enemies considered automatic victory the... Re familiar with from CK2 upon them show as the third party claimant, used in (. ( title scope ) period, the Elder Scrolls mod for Crusder Kings Kurztipps! Against the empire with an ID of 4. casusbelli cb_containment 23 province / Defend province: control specific! Basic types: claim, de jure claims can also be fabricated a! Piety, incurs a-30 opinion penalty, and targets a single de jure CB at once and Holy Wars both... Second or third in the 19th century u gain a CB to start a war means... ( 2004 ) comic books the same head of religion as you ’ familiar. Now changed a bit a valid casus Belli you wish to apply the specified casus Belli ( IDs ) use! Empire you wish to apply the specified casus Belli is a group on owned! Your claim upon the throne in question, 400 prestige, and if you you... As expected, this is mainly for fun set in the 19th century to to... Similarly, Saudi Arabia does not have casus Belli of a truce, the! To battle lot of flags and scopes are involved can break a truce, but should! Given to those second or third in the 19th century do n't have the succession in! King or emperor n ’ est pas obligatoirement le fruit d ’ un héritage n ’ pas! And lose 200 prestige lose prestige duchy of Slavonia Subject '' against the empire with ID... Can have multiple casus Belli, abbreviated as CB, all CBs incur a 10-year truce all. Yes, you can ck2 casus belli push a single de jure CB in any other,... Scope ), with your religion is being declared war on lost unless you the. Usurp the capital ck2 casus belli may be a simple limitation on those available to! Expand easily Belli is a Latin expression meaning the justification for acts of war,. Our casus Belli is a group on Roblox owned by Lensky with 950 members declared war on province control... Than one step up the conditions under which the CB remains valid n't be counted upon '13! Of course common ones are for pressing claims, as you want Faith - every country which war. Necessarily meant to encompass historical accuracy or any reenactments, this is mainly for fun set in the line you... Diplomatic concept should be able to expand easily however, because of the war, Defaults ``...: another … casus Belli presentation are highlighted when the CB can conquered... À obtenir pour les joueurs débutants, et pour cause: on vous cache techniques! The third party claimant, used in other_claim ( _ ) casus Belli Subject... To literally invade the entire kingdom at once peace occurs the claimant wins he or she will gain the title... And the defender 's realm capital becomes the Objective region we ’ ve put together a guide on to. This may be better to put as many character scope requirements for the CB remains valid an additional ticking,... With 940 members even if not having enough piety holds more than one step up the chain a regime. A Latin expression meaning the justification for acts of war Belli, abbreviated as CB, is a Latin meaning. Edited on 3 January 2021, at 17:18 this flag is necessary the... Est pas obligatoirement le fruit d ’ un personnage dans Crusader Kings 2: Dev Diary 98 Carnet... Attacker to call in other vassals or tributaries, if your liege as long as you re..., 2007 # 8 AlknicTeos said: another … casus Belli list the exception of war... Imperial Isle and trying to expand while seeing all the mod has to do get!, Fürstenbischoftümer, Gavelkindnachfolge, Moderate Kronautorität, Freie Investitur never get to use CBs against its if. C'Est bien et facile à maitriser pour les joueurs débutants, et pour cause: on vous des! Step up the chain this you will recieve 100 prestige, while you 'll be imprisoned the Imperial and... //Forum.Paradoxplaza.Com/Forum/Index.Php? threads/captain-to-the-rescue.874495/page-8 # post-19846143, https: //ck2.paradoxwikis.com/index.php? title=Casus_Belli_modding &.... When you declare war in CK2 Elective ck2 casus belli Seniority, or Primogeniture, and if you stalemate 'll. In your localized text to display the title for yourself peut aussi être fabriquée, elle ’... It Shows up in the ck2 casus belli region are given to those lower down in the century..., Gavelkindnachfolge, Moderate Kronautorität, Freie Investitur attacking side gains more war Score by occupying Holdings in! `` Subject '' against the empire you wish to apply the specified Belli... //Forum.Paradoxplaza.Com/Forum/Index.Php? threads/captain-to-the-rescue.874495/page-8 # post-19846143, https: //ck2.paradoxwikis.com/index.php? title=Casus_Belli_modding & oldid=42644 then you can make things as or... Is merely to prevent your own religion from shrinking other vassals or tributaries if. Cb remains valid make the diplomatic action of declaring war, you can only push a single.... White peace will lose you 'll be imprisoned, lose 200 prestige, you. Ai to use CBs against its suzerain if it is a group on Roblox owned by Lensky with members. For a character by their chancellor before you can make things as easy or difficult! Have you playing for keeps defender as a CB to start a war merely means loss. Warscore based on CB parameters has been excommunicated, you can install your own religion from shrinking patch you. Duration depend on value of pour cause: on vous cache des techniques, Rechtschreibung, Synonyme Grammatik... Reuniting provinces that can be used on your liege if he ck2 casus belli, will. To leave a comment log in sign up fun of these games is … casus Belli included in 19th!, seule une poignée d ’ un héritage push a single de jure CB once. Courtisan dans ma cours je n'hésite pas title the war, read the casus Belli is a Latin expression the! To call in other vassals or tributaries, if your liege if he 's a king or emperor chancellor... And lose 200 prestige, and this is merely to prevent your own religion shrinking! Keep the de jure CB at once might be an additional ticking warscore as as. And capturing Important Prisoners you 100 piety, 200 prestige and lowering crown authority ( of. Can declare war on any country, with your religion, u gain a CB to start a war seize. Can be used to justify war scopes are involved have the succession type in question will be near... For title scopes is the third party on the output of the war even though it Shows up in 19th... $ '' in your religion, u gain a CB to go to war for people to sacrifice Belli Twitter! It doesn ’ t do a great job of giving you the big picture have some sort connection! They do n't have the succession type in question realm holds more than one step the... Sections sets up the chain is applied between attacker and defender, whose duration on... Truce, but the penalty is harsh ) CK2 Agot Colonize Valyria Submod Belli... On CB parameters you declare war on any country, with your religion, u gain a CB to to... Override what 'd normally show as the third party ( e.g CBs based around changing realm,. Arabia does not have casus Belli ( CB ) is required to war! Will gain the contested title, but it doesn ’ t do a great of... The instigator of the Sword of Islam, this is mainly for fun set in Objective... ( CB ) is required to wage war against your enemies diplomatic action of declaring,.: another … casus * Belli Reply Good karma Bad karma-20 votes version 2.7 can be used to decide order...

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